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Paper & Pulp Dictionary Glossary "E"

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 Definitions for commonly used terms, words and phrases used in the pulp and paper trade

 

 

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Edge Crush Resistance
The amount of force needed to crush on-edge of combined board is a primary factor in predicting the compression strength of the completed box. When using certain specifications in the carrier classifications, minimum edge crush values must be certified.
Edge Cutter
Device comprising two jets of water which are adjustable across the wire and which divide the wet web on the wire lengthwise so that the edges may be removed, generally at the couch. In this way they control the width of the web going forward from the wire part and give it comparatively clean edges.
Effective Alkali
Caustic (NaOH) and one half of Sodium sulfide (05*Na2S) expressed as Na2O in alkaline pulping liquor.
Effluent
Waste backwater and rejects from which fiber is recovered prior to discharge from the mill.
Electrical Grade Paper
Strong, pin-hole free paper, sometimes impregnated with synthetic resins and made from unbleached Kraft pulp. Electrical insulating paper must neither contain fillers nor conductive contaminants (metals, coal, etc.) nor salts or acids. Lava stone bars are used on rotor and stator to avoid any metal contamination. Cable papers, that are wound around line wires in a spiral-like fashion, are electrical insulating papers with a particularly high strength in machine direction. Electrical grade papers include cable papers, electrolytic papers and capacitor paper.
Electric Resistivity
Resistivity characterizes how a sheet of paper accepts and holds a charge. Since the electrostatic processes uses an electrical charge to form the print image, the electrical properties of the sheet are important to the overall imaging process.
Electronic Printing
Photocopiers, ink jet, laser printers and other similar printing methods that create images using electrostatic charges rather than a printing plate.
Electro photography
A printing process that uses principles of electricity and electrically charged particles to create images - e.g., photocopiers and laser printers.
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
Used to clean up flue and process gases. Removes 99.5-99.8% of dust particles emitted from recovery boilers, lime kilns and bark-fired boilers.
Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)
ECF papers are made exclusively with pulp that uses chlorine dioxide rather than elemental chlorine gas as a bleaching agent. This virtually eliminates the discharge of detectable dioxins in the effluent of pulp manufacturing facilities.
Elongation
A property of paper that allows it to stretch.
Embossing
Pressing a shape into a sheet of paper with a metal or plastic die, creating a raised (embossed) image.
Emulsion Coating
Coating of paper with an emulsion containing plastic or resin.
Enamel
A general term referring to coated paper that has a higher basis weight than coated publication (magazine) paper but a lower basis weight and caliper than coated cover paper.
Engine Sizing
Old term used for beater sizing when sizing chemicals used to be added in Engine or Beater.
English Finish
A smooth-finished, machine made and calendered book paper. It is soft, dull and pliable. Normally used for letterpress printed magazines.
Engraving
A printing process using intaglio, or recessed, plates. Made from steel or copper, engraved plates cost more than plates used in most other printing processes, such as lithography. Ink sits in the recessed wells of the plate while the printing press exerts force on the paper, pushing it into the wells and onto the ink. The pressure creates raised letters and images on the front of the page and indentations on the back. The raised lettering effect of engraving can be simulated using a less costly process called thermography.
Entrained Air
Entrained air consists of bubbles that are small enough (say less than 1 mm) to move along with the fibers.
Envelop Paper
The paper made specifically for die cutting and folding of envelopes on high-speed envelop machine.
Environmentally Preferable Paper (EPP)
EPP should have at least two of the following three characteristics:
1. 30% or more Post Consumer Recycled Content
2. TCF Bleaching
3. Forest Stewardship Council certified Forest Management for virgin fiber sources.
Enzyme
A protein that has the ability to direct or catalyze a chemical reaction.
Enzyme Bleaching
Bleaching technique in which cooked and oxygen-delignified chemical pulp is treated with enzymes prior to final bleaching. Allows pulp to be bleached without chlorine chemicals.
Equilibrium Moisture Content
The moisture content of a paper that has reached a balance with the atmosphere surrounding it, i.e. in a condition in which it will neither give up nor absorb moisture
Equivalent Black Area
Of a dirt speck is defined as the area of a round black spot on a white background of the TAPPI Dirt Estimation Chart which makes the same visual impression on its background as does the dirt speck on the particular background in which it is embedded.
Esparto
A grass from North Africa which makes a soft, ink receptive sheet.
Ethers Pulp
Generally these are high purity, high viscosity pulps that are swollen in sodium hydroxide initially, followed by reaction with organic epoxides or chlorides like ethylene oxide or methyl chloride to form an organic polymer called cellulose ethers (methyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, etc.). Cellulose ethers are used for thickening of fluids such as toothpaste, ketchup, shampoos, diet drinks and hundreds of other applications.
Extended Cooking
Method of cooking pulp to low lignin content, thereby reducing the need for bleaching chemicals.
Extensible Kraft
Very strong virgin Kraft papers which stretches (approximately 6%) more in MD and tears less easily than regular Kraft paper.
External Fibrillation
A refining action that results in partial detachment of fibrils from outer layer of a fiber.
Extractives
Any number of different compounds in biomass that are not an integral part of the cellular structure. The compounds can be extracted from wood by means of polar and non-polar solvents including hot or cold water, ether , benzene, methanol, or other solvents that do not degrade the biomass structure. The types of extractives found in biomass samples are entirely dependent upon the sample itself
Extruded Coating
Coating applied to paper or board using an extruder.
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